Standard of the St. Bernard breed and characteristics
St. Bernard has a rectangular constitution; him Torso Longer than the height at the withers. The skeleton of St. Bernard is stronger than that of all other dogs.
Read more about what the standard of the St. Bernard breed and its characteristics.
Muscles strong and at the same time long. Hence the exceptional strength of his muscles, which is combined with great mobility.
Impressive sizes head Perfectly expresses the strength and nobility of this giant among dogs. Head angular, with prominent bones. Its length is about 36% of the height at the withers.
A characteristic feature of the breed is the convergenceLongitudinal upper axes of the skull and muzzle. The cheek arches protrude outwardly. In the anterior part of the skull, the hillocks are well marked, the ocular arches are not less pronounced, so that the transition from the forehead to the nose forms a right angle. Skull Very wide. In males, it is wider in width than in length. The length is 64% of the length of the entire head.
The muzzle is exceptionally thick. Its length is 34% of the length of the entire head. The nasal canal is straight, very wide, flat. Nose of the nose Thick with wide nostrils and absolutely black. The muzzle in front is flat and wide, has the shape of a cube. Lips are large and thick. Jaws massive, curved. The bite is pincer-like, scissorike. Teeth Slightly protruding forward. The incisors form a straight line.
EarsMedium, hanging, high, wide at the base.
Eyes Average, moderately sinking. Located in the subfrontal position, hence the view both from under the lobes. The color is dark brown.
Chest Strongly developed in all three parameters, thatIt is quite natural for such physical strength. In the area of the elbows, the thorax is lowered. The spine is straight, the withers are long and strongly elevated, the loin is short, the grove is horizontal, which is typical for all mountain dogs.
Limbs Very strong, long and muscular. Paws wide and roundish.
The angle of the shoulder with the humerus is markedly emphasized. While the ankle angle is moderate enough, which is also typical for all breeds of dogs.
ChvosT high set, thick at the base, very heavy and long.
Wool In individuals with a so-called short coat, hasModerately short length - up to 5 cm. Well-fitting, thick, dense, but not coarse. In individuals with long hair, it has an average length of up to 8 cm. A typical color is white-red or red-white. Wool variegated color, where predominantly white - should not have specks and specks of a darkish color. Must be white must be a collar, a nasal trunk, a dewlap, paws and the tip of the tail.
St. Bernard refers to the breeds of large dogs and is characterized by maximum growth, impressive appearance and aristocratic posture. Provided by the standard
growth Is at least 70 cm at the withers - for a male and at least 65 cm for a female.
These values are clearly too low, since, according toIdea, the absolute minimum would be 78 - 80 cm for males, and 70 - 72 cm for bitches. However, in the homeland of the St. Bernard dogs - in Switzerland - such values were rejected, because there the dogs have a really lower growth and could not agree to such a "standard" Swiss dog breeders.
Fortunately, the maximum growth in the standard is notAnd, in addition to St. Bernard, this applies to two other breeds of dogs - the Great Dane and the Irish Wolfhound (Irish Wolfhound), which have the same height as St. Bernard. There were specimens of 90-100 (!) Cm. One of them, 96 cm tall, had such a harmonious physique and moved so perfectly that in the 70s he regularly became the champion of exhibitions.
The Italian variety of St. Bernard is differentThe largest size, and therefore is in demand abroad, particularly in Germany, Denmark and Switzerland, where they are used to improve the breed characteristics. It is obvious that such a characteristic as a large growth should be proportionally combined with a harmonious physique, typical head and functional qualities. However, we have already seen that gigantic dimensions have been a necessary prerequisite for effective rescue operations in the mountains, and therefore are in full accordance with the purpose of the breed.
Unfortunately, these giants are not longevity and they do not tolerate the heat.
The weight In individuals with maximum growth can reach, and even exceed, 100 kilograms.
The weight of St. Bernard at birth is from 800Grams to 1 kilogram. For the first week the weight is doubled, and by the end of the first month it reaches 4-5 kilograms, by the end of the second 10-15 kg, the third - 20-25 kg (!). By the end of the first year of life, the weight can exceed 80 kg. A mature individual, as mentioned above - 100 kg.