History of the origin of St. Bernard and breeding
In the heart of the Alps, at an altitude of almost 2.5 km, there is an orphanage on the Great St. Bernard Pass.
The pass for many centuries served as a kind of watershed between the Mediterranean and the countries of Central and Northern Europe. Amphitheater of mountains of unprecedented beauty with icy jagged peaks.
In view of the special location on the Great PassSt. Bernard all year round the cold winds are raging, making these places practically unsuitable for life. At least in the form that we are used to.
In this unassailable area for hundreds of centuries, a legend about the dogs of St. Bernard, Sacred dogs about which children of the whole worldLearn from school textbooks. St. Bernard, undoubtedly, is the most famous breed of dog, which for many centuries by faith and truth serves man.
The most reliable hypothesis about the history of the origin of St. Bernard Considers this huge alpine dog a descendantThe giant Tibetan Mastino, from which all major mountain dogs originate, as well as fighting breeds of dogs. His first image (a bas-relief depicting a slave leading a huge dog on a leash), kept in the British Museum, dates back to the year 850 BC.
About the impressive size of the dog can be judged byThe fact that her head is at the level of a man's shoulder. The constitution, the skeleton, the musculature of the dog speak of its remarkable strength, which is the distinguishing feature of the modern St. Bernard. Most likely, it was this dog that Aristotle described as "a watchdog dog of extraordinary strength." And Marco Polo described it as "a dog the size of a donkey and in everything resembling a lion, and a roar and a physique." The Romans used these dogs to guard the herds and in fights with wild animals. In the Alps, they fell with the legions during the campaigns of Alexander the Great.
Engaged in saving people in the mountains, monks shelterTried to use for this purpose a variety of breeds of dogs, but, given the particularly complex nature of this activity, which implies special strength and endurance, finally settled on the large dogs that were bred by the inhabitants of the Swiss valley. Initially, dogs were used to protect the shelter from robbers and wolves, but eventually became involved in rescue work, which is the main activity of the monks of the Greater Saint Bernard.
It is the monks, engaged in breeding dogs byCrossing of related individuals, managed to preserve and consolidate such characteristics as - great growth, physical strength - the qualities most needed to save people in the mountains. The monastery's rescue operations reached their peak between 1795 and 1851, when among the other dogs St. Bernard I, the most famous life-saving dog in history, survived from 1800-1812, to at least 44 people. In honor of the merits in Paris Saint Bernard Barry built a monument.
History of the breeding of the St.Bernards Outside the shelter begins with a nameSwiss dog breeder Schumacher, who grew up about a lot of individuals, taking the old Barry as a standard. The morphological portrait of St. Bernard, almost coinciding with the present, was approved at the congress of cynologists in Zurich in 1887 (although the name "St. Bernard" was officially fixed 7 years before - in 1880). This date symbolizes the official entrance of St. Bernard into the world of organized dog breeding and dog shows, first held in England in the middle of the last century and from there spread throughout Europe.
Thus, the British have merit inThat they became the first real propagandists of this breed. Without their efforts, the breed of St. Bernard probably did not develop further. Since that time, both in Switzerland and in Germany, there are a number of outstanding dog breeders whose work has had a significant impact on the development of the breed. Since the twenties, the "golden age" of the St. Bernards in Europe has begun, lasting more than 20 years.