History of breed German Shepherd
From ancient times man in his difficult andA dangerous, powerful, large, sensitive, spiteful dog was accompanied by a well-developed sentinel instinct tied to the host, brave in the fight against predators.
This group of breeds has received the name "sheep dog".
From ancient times man in his difficult andA dangerous, powerful, large, sensitive, spiteful dog was accompanied by a well-developed sentinel instinct tied to the host, brave in the fight against predators. This group of breeds has received the name "sheep dog".
Sheepdogs are now called a number of breeds of serviceDogs, historically used as shepherd dogs, assistants shepherds of sheep (sheep dogs). In those old times successfully grazing livestock, keeping a livestock without such dogs was simply impossible. According to some authors, a group of sheep-dogs was bred in Europe in the period of sedentary farming and developed livestock breeding, when the number of predators decreased significantly, and the pastures as close as possible to the sown areas.
Shepherds needed a different type of dog: Not too large, more mobile, working under the direct guidance of a person and in close contact with him, suitable not only to protect the herd, but also to manage it. The ancestors of these sheep-dogs are considered to be small, mobile hunting dogs, similar to modern laikas, which were used for hunting in forest tracts.
By prolonged selection, the person significantlyChanged their hunting instinct into a shepherd, which included the elements of the pursuit of the animal, but excludes his subsequent catching and biting. Further joint existence and work of these dogs with man led to the formation of breeds, the main features of which were attachment to a person, possession of a sharp instinct, a thin ear and abilities for training.
In the 18th century, a small,A wolf-like dog. In different countries it has been cultivated in different ways and that is why there are more than 30 breeds of shepherds in the world at present. The most famous shepherd we have is German. Why does she have such a name and when did this breed appear?
In the spring of 1899, at one of the dog showsGerman Max Emil Frederic von Stefanitz acquired a dog named Hector Linkrsheim (later named after Horand von Grafrat), which became the first in the Breed's book of the breed and formed the basis of the German shepherd population.
At the same time, the first club of the breed was formedDogs and a society of lovers of the German Shepherd, whose leader was Stefanitz himself. At the first meeting of this society, the first breed standard was adopted, and the purposeful formation of a German shepherd as a separate breed began.
Von Stefanitz was in charge of more than thirty yearsThe work of the German Shepherd Society. Thanks to his efforts and the enthusiasm of the representatives of the Society throughout Germany, the breed was mainly formed in twenty years.
Already at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries this little knownAt that time the breed successfully began to be used in the search, police and military services, which made it popular. Due to professional selection mainly on service qualities, this breed became the most valuable among service dogs of universal purpose.
IN OTHER COUNTRIES
In Russia for the first time, German shepherds were imported into1904 year. It was a group of dogs trained for sanitation (they passed the test in the Russo-Japanese War), later they began to be used by the police.
During the civil war, the German Shepherd's livestock declined sharply.
In the period from 1924 to 1936 for breedingGerman shepherds in the USSR began to bring pedigree dogs from Germany (Central School of Dog Breeding Border Guards GPU, Central School of Dog-Hunters ESD NKVD, nurseries of the Red Army, etc.). Unfortunately, this initial livestock was very heterogeneous: along with the selected animals were brought and did not represent the breeding value of the dog.
The first attempts at breeding nurseries of GermanSheepdogs were mostly unsuccessful. Affected by ignorance of the breed, the lack of specialists-dog handlers and experience of breeding. However, gradually things went well. In 1927, sections of amateur dog breeders were created, and in 1928 - courses of dog handlers. These organizations were eventually transformed into clubs of official dog breeding, which united amateur dog breeders. In these clubs, thanks to many years of systematic breeding, systematic improvement and mass breeding of dogs of this breed was ensured. An important role in the popularization of official dog breeding was played regularly by dog shows in different cities. The first such exhibition in the USSR took place in 1925 in Moscow, where the winner of the German Shepherd was the Bodo f. Toidelsfinkel.
Formation of the German Shepherd in the USSRContributed to the removal of a very successful line of champion VSHB in 1939 Abrek O. P. Osmalovskaya. The line was characterized by the nobility of form and fortress. During the Great Patriotic War, the German Shepherd breed in the USSR suffered great losses: breeders sent their best dogs to the front. Almost all the dogs of selection from abroad were killed. The largest cynological centers (in Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, etc.) were forced to start their breeding work first. (To be continued.)
Deputy chairman of the Belarusian public sports cynological association
FROM THE BOOK THE BACKGROUND STEPANICA "GERMAN SHEPHERD":
"At that time, Horand von Grafrat served usThe embodiment of a dream. Rosly - 60-61 cm at the withers, he was proportionally complex, had a strong, strong bones, beautiful body lines, a noble bearing and a remarkable head shape. He was in his prime: strong and muscular, like a steel rod. His character was wonderful.
First of all, he was a gentleman, devoted andObedient to his master, playful and kind, incredibly energetic, indefatigable in his work and a wonderful companion. He loved people, but without flattery, but on an equal footing, and endlessly adored his master. He was looking for a way out of his energy and was in the seventh heaven with happiness, when I was engaged with him. "