History of the origin of the breed Bullmastiff
The traditional version of the origin of the breed is bullmastiff.
It is generally accepted that Bullmastiff - this is one of the relatively young breeds,The foresters of England withdrawn at the end of the 19th century to protect themselves from poachers. The laws of England, traditionally very strict (if not cruel) to poachers, provided for the supreme penalty for almost any offense.
And, consequently, the poacher is by no meansSurrendered to the huntsmen, even in the most hopeless situations, firing back and resisting to the last. The frequent loss of foresters and huntsmen caused the breeding of bullmastiff breed to help fight poachers. The dogs of this prodigy are powerful and intrepid as mastiffs, and the taiga are swift and persistent, like bulldogs (now the so-called old English bulldogs, which are very different from modern bulldogs).
These two breeds became the "outcomes" for breedingBullmastiff. The foresters needed a dog that would not make a noise when the poacher arrived and commanded him fiercely and fearlessly. As a result, the dog turned out to be strong and fast, but considering the combat qualities of the original breeds, it is very ferocious. That is now the poachers had to save from the fangs of these dogs.
That's why bullmastiffs began to wean biting andTear at the enemy. It was necessary only to knock down and press the poacher to the ground with the weight of the dog's body. And they disaccustomed so much that modern bullmastiffs have to train enough time so that they do not hesitate to use their teeth. And already if they "swung" before this, then the enemy - beware!
With a decrease in the number of poachers, bullmastiffs of steelUsed as a guard, sometimes - police dogs. However, this traditional version, although it has the right to exist and in many respects is correct, nevertheless, in our opinion, needs some addition.
Let's return to those qualities thatIdeal was expected for the derived bullmastiff. He had to reliably protect the owner (hence, be strong, spiteful, fearless) and find, pursue the poacher (hence, have a good instinct, be tough, viscid in pursuit and impetuous).
That is the functional specialization of bullmastiffsConsisted of those services that in the days of DOSAAF were called "Guard and Guard Service" and "Search Service" (RS). Consequently, nothing fundamentally new, from the point of view of functional specialization, was not required from bulmastiffs. The same tasks were successfully carried out and carried out by German shepherds, Rottweilers, Dobermanns, and many other official breeds, domestic and foreign.
Unusual and rather interesting was the approach to solving the problem, in particular, the approach to determining the breeds, whose hybrids could best meet the specified requirements.
Clarification of the second
Let's pay attention to the quality of the original rocks. What do we know about them? And the mastiff and the bulldog were already independent and completely formed rocks. Both of these breeds belonged to a group of rocks that were commonly called bollen - or by the Berenbeytser (bull - or bear). That is, the nature and desire for battle in both breeds were developed very, very well.
But, unfortunately, for a number of reasons, none, noneThe other was not sufficiently suitable for the needs of the huntsmen. Mastiff is massive, but not very fast. The Bulldog is sharp, spiteful and quick, but somewhat light to easily overwhelm an adult and strong man. It must be thought that the original "material" (representatives of both bulldogs and mastiffs) was in sufficient quantities at the hands of the huntsmen, for the activity on breeding the bullmastiff breed was by no means the state program of Great Britain.
It is amazing that the very idea of breeding a hybridBulldog and mastiff, or "lit up" at once many foresters and huntsmen in different parts of the country, or the withdrawn dogs so fell in love with them that the news of such dogs flew almost instantly. After all, there is no person who could be considered the sole creator of Bullmastiff, as, for example, Ludwig Doberman, the creator of the Doberman, Captain Gordon is the creator (according to some versions, the reductant) of Setter Gordon, etc.
That is, for the appearance of a number of dogs of the same typeYou need a few initial conditions: first, a large number of enthusiasts who for a long time could engage in divorce activities; Second, a sufficient (large) amount of "source material" (representatives of the mastiff and bulldog breeds); Third, the inexhaustible, very long-term relevance of such activities for a significant number of consumers; Fourthly, the economic feasibility of this work.
The British are very proud of the Bullmastiff breed andCall it "pure British breed", which means "genuinely English breed", since it was bred with the participation of two English breeds as well - the English mastiff and the English bulldog.
The remarkable qualities of bullmastiff emergedInitially, due to the purely utilitarian need of their daily use, and the dogs, though in some ways not corresponding to the needs, were immediately rejected by the "iron hand".
This approach is also universal, independent ofBreeds, epochs, geographic location, etc. Let's recall, for example, Caucasian and Asian wolfhounds and ways of their selection and breeding, bull terriers, Russian dog hounds, etc.
Clarification of the third
Is it really possible to assume that the rockBullmastiff was bred (as most of the reference books wrote) in the late 19th century? Yes and no. Yes - because it was during this period that the first bullmastiffs were recorded - participants in the show and exhibitions, the first pedigrees were established on them, clubs of amateurs and breeders of bullmastiffs were established.
No - because the hybrids of the two original rocks wereKnown for a long time and mention of them are given in many and various sources. But the purposeful breeding of dogs of this breed begins precisely from the end of the 19th century - when there really appeared an acute need for them. Funny, but in some of the first genealogical English mastiff figurines bullmastiffs! And in the first genealogical bullmastiffs, even bloodhounds can be found. Only about bulldogs is not spoken of as a result of crossing different breeds.
Hence, one can conclude that suitable dogs were compiled in the first place, or rather, exclusively in their working qualities! And no one particularly cared about the cleanliness of the blood lines!
Many dogs listed in pedigreesBullmastiffs (and even mastiffs), manufacturers are not known. They may have just been found somewhere on the road and sold by unknown people. Compare this with the fact that some Caucasian or Asian wolfhounds also do not have references to their ancestors, for example, in the fourth tribe.