Encephalitis in dogs: symptoms, treatment
Encephalitis in dogs is a brain damage that has an inflammatory character. This lesion is caused by infections or an infectious-allergic process.
Combined defeat is not uncommonThe brain with its membranes or spinal cord. The defeat of the brain with its membranes is called meningoencephalitis. The defeat of the brain and spinal cord is called encephalomyelitis, and if at the same time the meningoencephalomyelitis is involved in the inflammatory process and the meninges speak about it.
Causes of encephalitis in dogs
Depending on the cause of the occurrence of primary and secondary encephalitis in dogs. Primary associated with the introduction of viruses (plagueCarnivores, rabies, infectious peritonitis), protozoa (toxoplasm), bacteria (listeria) and prions. Secondary encephalitis develops as a result of complications of other diseases, for example, sepsis, purulent otitis, trauma, bacteremia.
Some breeds of dogs have a geneticPredisposition to certain types of encephalitis. Bernese beaver and beagle often have meningoarteritis, Pugs have meningoencephalitis, Maltese lap dog and Yorkshire terrier have necrotic encephalitis.
Symptoms and clinical signs
Encephalitis in dogs is very diverse inThe clinical picture due to the variety of causes of their occurrence. In general, the pathological changes in the locomotor function are observed: paresis, ataxia, paralysis. Ataxia occurs when the trunk of the spinal cord and brain is damaged. Then there may be a neurological deficit of the cranial nerves.
It is determined by the violation of the functions of these nerves:
- Disturbance of the pupillary reflex,
- Blindness, nystagmus,
- Development of paralysis of the facial nerve
There may also be motor damageBranches of the trigeminal nerve and the innervation of the chewing musculature is disturbed. The dog decreases or disappears sensitivity in the area of the muzzle, although the functions of the facial nerve can be preserved. Often, encephalitis is accompanied by epileptiform manifestations, a violation of consciousness.
It is possible to develop a partial or completeDisorders of sensitivity on the body and limbs, hypo- and hyperreflexia. These symptoms indicate parenchymal damage to the brain and / or spinal cord. The dog loses coordination when walking, it "brings in", it can restlessly circling in place. On the body can appear tremor (especially in bolonok), twist the neck. The signs of stress are obvious: the animal loses interest in toys, does not react to people.
Observation of symptoms of encephalitis does not giveThe ability to correctly diagnose the disease, to understand the degree of brain damage and to prescribe adequate treatment. Therefore, when suspected of encephalitis, a radiographic examination of the head (craniography), contrast radiography (myelography and ventriculography) is necessary.
Myelography in the cervical spine, which may indicate cerebral edema. Magnetic resonance imaging allows you to see the brain damage well.
A number of laboratory studies are also needed(Analyzes for dogs): biochemistry, clinical analysis, bacteriological culture, blood microscopy and serological examination, cerebrospinal CSF and bacteriological culture of CSF.
Treatment of encephalitis
With the bacterial character of the diseaseAntibiotics are administered with drugs that penetrate the blood-brain barrier (isoniazid, rifampicin, pefloxacin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol). The choice is made taking into account a certain sensitivity. Also it is necessary to choose antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action which possess the least toxicity and bactericidal properties. For example,
Their doses should be 40-50 mg / kg(Intravenously twice a day). Depending on the degree of neurological disorders, corticosteroid therapy is prescribed: methylprednisolone (15 mg / kg, intravenously four times a day) for three days, then the dosage is reduced.
It is also necessary to use drugs that lower intracranial pressure (diacarb, mannitol). Other medications are prescribed depending on the symptomatology. In the treatment of encephalitis in dogs of any etiology, the use of immunostimulants is contraindicated.