Myocardial infarction in dogs: symptoms, treatment, causes
Myocardial infarction in dogs - necrosis (ischemic necrosis) of the myocardium (a portion of the heart muscle) as a result of a discrepancy between the coronary blood flow (ischemia).
Causes of myocardial infarction in dogs
Dogs are the most common cause of heart attackMyocardium are hormonal disorders associated with age. Much less common are metabolic disturbances, due to which the walls of the vessels thicken due to fat deposits. That is, myocardial infarction in dogs - the diagnosis is rare. It is confirmed, as a rule, only at the post-mortem autopsy.
Infarction in dogs can also be provokedCoronary artery occlusion with an embolus (a substrate circulating in the blood) or a thrombus. Also, a heart attack can cause vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels) caused by congenital vascular anomalies or bacterial endocarditis.
Symptoms of a heart attack are not specific and can manifest themselves in many other diseases. Among such symptoms:
- Cyanosis (cyanosis) of the mucous membranes,
- Shaky flaccid gait,
- Refusal to get up and reluctance to move
- The dog hurts behind the sternum, but the nature of these pains can not always be determined
- In the acute period in the animal the region of the left elbow strongly hurts. Pain can last up to several days and can not be stopped with nitroglycerin. The dog is aroused from fear
- You can notice arrhythmia and tachycardia, and with the development of heart failure - lowering blood pressure
Myocardial infarction can be assumed by a cardiologist on examination with the help of a special examination on an electro- and echocardiograph. However, it is first necessary to exclude cardiac pathologies that occur more often and are accompanied by similar clinical signs.
This is dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, various arrhythmias (extrasystole and blockade) of the disease, the cause of which is a violation of the heart valves and other cardiac pathologies.
The best way to diagnose myocardial infarction is angiography. However, it requires the introduction of an animal into anesthesia, and this is dangerous for a sick dog.
At the first signs of acute cardiacInsufficiency, you should go to the veterinarian, and better to a specialist - a cardiologist. Delay can cost a pet of life. The correct diagnosis can be made only on the basis of necessary heart studies (ECG, ECHO), pressure measurement, blood tests.
Periods of infarction
In veterinary medicine, five periods of myocardial infarction are clinically identified:
- Pre-infarction or prodromal lasts from a few hours to a month, although it may be absent;
- The acute period begins with the onset of acute myocardial ischemia and lasts until signs of necrosis appear;
- The acute period is characterized by the formation of necrosis and flow for two to fourteen days;
- Subacute period - this is the completion of scar formation, replacement of necrotic granulation tissue. It can last up to eight weeks from the onset of the disease;
- For the post-infarction period, scarring is characteristic, and the myocardium adapts to the new working conditions as much as possible within six months from the onset of the infarction
Self-medication in this situation is life-threateningAnimal. It is urgent to call a veterinarian at home or take a dog to a 24-hour veterinary clinic. Before that, the animal is left in peace and quiet.
In most cases, the dog copes withSuffered myocardial infarction, since her heart has many collateral vessels. They instead of damaged areas quickly take on the burden.
- To relieve shock and speedy recovery in veterinary medicine, antianginal drugs are widely used
- Heparin is administered to prevent thromboembolic complications
- Vitamin therapy and diet are also needed
- The food should be based on easily digestible lactic-acidic and carbohydrate fortified food
- From the diet of an animal, fats, sweets and spices are excluded