Biochemical and general blood test in dogs, urinalysis in dogs
Often, studies of tests are often needed to accurately diagnose diseases. Most often, dogs take blood and urine tests.
General blood test in dogs
He determines the composition of the blood, that is, the amount inHer hemoglobin, erythrocytes, platelets and many other indicators. The norm depends on the age and health of the dog, that is, its history of illness.
- The norm of hemoglobin in the blood of a dog is 74-180 g / l. An increase in its level indicates dehydration and thickening of blood, and a decrease in anemia.
- The norm of erythrocytes is 3.3-8.5 million / μl, theirAn increased amount may be due to bronchopulmonary pathology, polycystosis, heart defects, liver or kidney malignancies, and also dehydration. Reducing the number of red blood cells can be caused by great blood loss, anemia, chronic inflammatory processes.
- ESR - sedimentation rate of erythrocytes. In dogs, it should be up to 13 mm / h. The increased value of ESR is characteristic for various inflammatory processes and infectious diseases, it is also observed during pregnancy.
- The number of leukocytes should be within6-18.6 thousand cells / μl. Excess of this rate can be caused by infectious and inflammatory processes, leukemia, allergic reactions. A decrease - infectious pathologies of the bone marrow, genetic anomalies, hyperfunction of the spleen.
- Elevated levels of platelets in the blood (more500 thousand / μL) can be caused by myeloleukemia, polycythemia, and decreased - is typical for anemia and systemic autoimmune diseases like lupus erythematosus.
Biochemical blood test in dogs
Defines the biochemical parameters of the blood. Changes in the main of them indicate very serious diseases.
- Glucose should be within 4 - 6 mmol / l. Their excess indicates diabetes, hyperthyroidism, stress, pancreatic necrosis, and a decrease in insulin overdose, insulinoma, hypoadrenocorticism.
- The total protein in a healthy dog is at the level of50-77 g / l. Elevated evidence of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, dehydration. Reduced - about enteritis, nephrotic syndrome, pancreatitis, blood loss, starvation, heart failure, hypovitaminosis, malignant neoplasms.
- Nitrogen nitrogen should be at the level of 4.3-8.9Mmol / l. Its increase suggests a violation of kidney function and urinary excretion, acute liver dystrophy, absorption of a large amount of protein in the intestine. Decrease - about cirrhosis of the liver.
- Bilirubin common (component of bile) should notExceed 7.5 mkmol / l otherwise it is worth suspecting cirrhosis or liver tumors, hepatitis in dogs. The increase in creatinine by more than 133 Mkmol / L indicates a violation of kidney function.
General urine analysis in dogs
It goes like a visual assessment of transparency and color, and its chemical composition.
- The urine of a healthy dog should be yellow. A significant change in its color can indicate serious diseases: bilirubinemia (beer colors), hematuria (red-brown), leukocyturia (milky white), myoglobinuria (black urine).
- Muddy urine may indicate the presence in it of bacteria or a large number of salts.
- In the chemical analysis of urine, the levels of glucose, protein, ketone bodies, urobilinogen and bilirubin are estimated.
- Glucose in the urine of a healthy dog should not be. Its presence can be explained either by a violation of the processes of filtration of glucose and its reabsorption in the kidneys, or by a high concentration of glucose in the blood. This indicates acute renal failure or diabetes mellitus.
- The norm of protein content in urine is considered to beAmount up to 0.3 g / l. The causes of its increase may be destructive processes or chronic infections in the kidneys, in the urinary tract, hemolytic anemia or urolithiasis in dogs.
- Ketone bodies should also not be in the urine of a healthy dog. When they are detected and the presence of sugar in the urine, they usually diagnose diabetic acidosis.
- There should be no bilirubin. Its presence in the urine indicates a violation of bile outflow or liver damage.