Collapse of trachea in dogs: symptoms, treatment, prevention
Veterinarians quite often in their practiceUse the term collapse of the trachea, by which they determine a syndrome that qualifies for the emergence of a chronic form of respiratory failure against a background of cough or shortness of breath.
As the veterinary practice shows, similarAnemia affects mainly the smallest breeds of dogs. As a result of the collapse of the trachea, the tracheal rings are modified in the animal, as a result of which they become flattened. With the passage of time, the trachea narrows even more, and its obstruction occurs.
Diagnosis and causes of trachea in dogs
To date, veterinarians can not uniquelyTo identify the causes leading to the collapse of the trachea. It is conventionally accepted to distinguish between primary and secondary collapse. The first is diagnosed in puppies, as a consequence of congenital pathology. The second occurs in dogs as a result of complications of diseases from the respiratory system or the circulatory system.
The severity of the disease is largely determinedDegree of involvement in the process of disease of the dorsal tracheal membrane and cartilaginous rings. The veterinarian diagnoses 1 or 2 degrees of collapse in the event that the tracheal membrane is weakened, but the rings have not changed. If the pathology develops in the cervical region, then the dorsal membrane is drawn during inspiration.
However, with the development of collapse in the thoracic regionThe dorsal membrane will be retracted during expiration, thus provoking functional stenosis. If the cartilage rings were subjected to transformation, the veterinarian confidently diagnoses 3 or 4 degree of collapse. Pathology in small breeds of dogs has its own characteristics. As a result of the development of the disease, a considerable thickening of the cartilaginous rings is observed, as a result of which they are no longer able to maintain their habitual form.
This phenomenon is most likelyThe cause of a deficiency in the cartilaginous tissue of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans. Naturally, such a thickening of the rings leads to a noticeable shortening and flattening in the dorso-ventral direction. A consequence of this is a narrowing of the lumen of the trachea, as a result of which the resistance of the respiratory tract increases significantly.
Symptoms of the disease
Clinical picture of tracheal collapse in dogsCharacterized by chronic inflammation, alteration of the epithelium, a decrease in the number of ciliary cells. As a result, the function of clearing the trachea is significantly weakened by the active secretion of thick mucus, which makes breathing difficult and provokes coughing in dogs.
Due to the fact that the cartilaginous rings duringExpiration is significantly compressed, an excessive pressure is created in the airways leading to increased resistance of the pulmonary vessels. In patients with dogs, hypertrophy of the right side of the heart is often detected, caused by high pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs.
The insidiousness of the collapse of the trachea lies in the fact that the symptoms of pathology can not be manifested for a long time. A dog owner can, until a certain moment,Do not even suspect the presence of a disease in the pet, respectively, in time without taking the necessary measures. Sometimes the owners of the dog, when pulling the leash or strong excitement of the animal, notice the appearance of a dry cough.
The same happens with palpation of the trachea. If the pathology has passed into a neglected form, then between the bouts of a cough, wheezing is clearly audible, dyspnea and cyanosis appear. In particularly severe cases, choking occurs. If the pathology progresses in the cervical region, then inspiratory dyspnea is formed, and if in the thoracic region, then there is an expiratory dyspnea.
When diagnosing a disease, the work of a veterinarianIt is difficult to carry out anesthesia with most manipulations. But even simple palpation of the trachea can be quite informative, as it provokes a suffocating cough in the dog or strengthens shortness of breath, as a result of the procedure, the trachea is even more flattened.
A reliable diagnosis requires resultsFluoroscopy. This procedure is carried out in the supine position, as a result of which the veterinarian has the opportunity to observe the movement of the trachea with the act of breathing. According to most experts, endoscopy is the most informative method for diagnosing the collapse of the trachea.
The only obstacle inA similar study is the need for anesthesia. Nevertheless, tracheobronchoscopy allows not only to detect abnormalities in the movement of the trachea, but also to examine the condition of the mucous membrane. The results of tracheobronchoscopy unambiguously confirm or disprove the diagnosis.
Treatment of tracheal collapse in dogs
Depending on the degree of pathologicalProcess, the treatment of tracheal collapse can be conservative or operative. As the veterinary practice shows, therapeutic treatment is effective at 1 or 2 degrees. Treatment must necessarily take place under the supervision of a specialist, since it is extremely important to get a response from the animal to the prescribed drugs.
The course of treatment, as a rule, consists ofAntibiotics, glucocorticoids and antitussive drugs. At 3 or 4 degrees of development of a collapse, only surgical treatment is acceptable, which can include both luminal and intraluminal stabilization.
In the first case, the doctor fixes the trachea withMade of polypropylene separating rings. For rapid access to the trachea, a median incision is made from the larynx to the thorax. This technique is quite well proven in veterinary practice.
However, exclude postoperativeComplications categorically impossible, because as a result of the violation of blood supply in the walls of the trachea, the risk of developing necrosis is high. Intraluminal stabilization is most acceptable for this type of pathology. However, it is currently used quite rarely because of its novelty.
The essence of this surgical treatment isUse of a nitinol-stent, which, due to its characteristics, will ideally simulate tracheal cartilage. The beauty of such an operation lies in its low traumatic and transience. An experienced veterinarian is able to complete all manipulations within 10 minutes.
To avoid postoperative complications,The dog is given a course of antibiotics for 10 days, as well as corticosteroids. Good results can be obtained from the use of oxygen therapy. If the dog is disturbed by a severe cough caused by inflammation and swelling, the veterinarian prescribes the use of antitussive drugs in parallel with the main treatment.