Dachshund (standard, rabbit, dwarfish): breed description, dog character, price, photo
Dachshund Is the most attractive, unusual andA common breed of dogs that belongs to the hunting species. Fashion exists on dogs, and it is also capricious and fickle, but as for the dachshund, in this case it does not disappear from the list of the most fashionable pets for the 2nd century. Among its admirers and "admirers" there are both lovers of hunting, and those who have no idea that the dachshunds have unsurpassed hunting abilities, opportunities and talents. But than this small creature could so conquer the hearts of dog breeders?
Dachshund is the smartest and funny pet
|Tendency to training|
|Attitudes towards children|
Table of contents:
- Breed Standard
- Maintenance and care
- How and how to feed?
- How to choose and where to buy a puppy?
- Education and training
Dachshund is an unusually intelligent dog, with complaisant andCalm character, but, at the same time, it is inherent in a sense of dignity, which she proudly bears throughout her life. She has the most expressive eyes, in which one can simultaneously see great curiosity, a desire to know the world around him, and also friendliness. Despite the fact that at first glance the dachshund looks like a proud being incapable of playfulness and fervor, in reality she is very emotional and has a peculiar sense of humor. What is just her unusual appearance: an amusing elongated body and short limbs in the ensemble create a rather comic and kind image. And her face is like a caricature of a human face. She is able to express numerous emotions and temperament, which is simply impossible not to fall in love.
Dachshund likes to communicate with people around her andOther animals. She will never give up the opportunity to contact a person, but only with the permission of her master. This dog is very devoted to those who love and care for her.
Common features of the breed and character
Nature dachshunds every minute exudes energy,Activity, great friendliness and curiosity. She is passionate, cunning and tireless. Legend has it that dachshunds are very stubborn creatures. This is partly true. But their stubbornness is none other than the consequence of its unrivaled intelligence, independence. This stubborn line is laid in them by the very "Mother Nature." After all, when they are in a hole, one on one with a badger or a fox, then they can not wait for help from a person, so you have to rely only on your own strength. At this moment, the dachshund should think things over in such a way that the badger does not have the opportunity to leave the hole until the hunter digs up and does not reach the prey. Therefore, obstinacy can be called an inalienable quality, without which the rate can not be imagined.
This breed of dogs is very prudent andCalculating. She will never rush to carry out the command of the owner, without considering her correctness. At this point, it seems that it gives the owner time to rethink and think about the correctness of his decision. But if the thoughts and intentions of the pet and its owner coincide, it will obey unquestioningly and rush to the execution of any team without regard. The dachshund needs a good and intelligent host, and only with this she will become responsive and obedient.
The dachshund is very clear, it does not need to be repeatedSomething on many times. She is also unpretentious in care and maintenance. A huge merit to this is its cleanliness. She can take care of herself on her own, but the extra care has not prevented anyone.
The modern hunting dachshund is very smart andHardy. If we talk about its direct purpose - hunting - then here its main quality becomes aggressiveness to mining. Despite its small size and bizarre shapes, this is a vivid example of a true brave hunter. Their courage allows them to rush into battle with the enemy, which is several times their size, for example, with a wild boar. But their main "field of activity" is the normal hunting for foxes and badgers. The easiest thing for a dachshund is hunting a raccoon dog. And in the case of the fox, the courage and excitement of the dachshund there is no limit. For her, this is an exemplary action, because a fox is practically the same size with this dog, and the fight will be on an equal footing.
Despite its aggressiveness towardsMining, the rate is able to control their emotions, be careful and cautious, soberly assessing the situation and their capabilities. Her "crown number" and distinctive tactics during the hunt - "a dead grip". It can hold a predator by the neck or head for a long time, until the person pulls them out of the burrow.
Despite his funny body and small weight,Dachshund is very mobile and active, it can be called an eternal "motor", which does not subside for a minute. Movement for her is the meaning of life. As for getting used to the new owner, here the process is almost instantaneous, but on the part of the owner of the rate should feel complete reciprocity and love. Only in this case it can become a full-fledged and faithful pet. For a dachshund, a close and subtle spiritual contact with a person is a vital necessity. Ignoring her need for communication and development, you doom this dog to become aggressive, vindictive and sullen.
Thanks to its active "life position"Representatives of this breed will perfectly fit into a large family where there are children. But it should be noted that small dachshund puppies are very sensitive and their psyche is still weak. First time in the house you need to create a warm and more than a quiet environment, so as not to break the individuality of the puppy. It is important to give it more attention, warmth and care.
Dachshund and its history
The dachshund is considered one of the most ancient huntingNormal dogs. The exact time of its appearance is still unknown and causes numerous and violent disputes. But thanks to the drawings carved on the walls of the pyramids, which depicts a funny dog with an extended muzzle and body, and also with very short paws, you can confidently state that the dachshunds managed to "light up" even in the days of Ancient Egypt.
As for modern dogs, it follows thatRefer to the etymology of the name of the breed. From German it sounds like "dahsa" or "daksa", which in translation means "badger". Germans themselves prefer to call it dax-hund (badger hound). For a long time in Russia, the dachshund was not called the usual word for us. Almost until the middle of the 19th century this dog was called "badger".
Despite the variety of theories aboutThe origin of this breed, in the 19th century, most zoologists and dog experts came to the common opinion that the progenitors of the dachshund were from Germany. Allegedly this normal hunting breed has taken its roots from the family of a marriage (a small hound), and is their dwarf subspecies. Earlier in the mid-18th century, a well-known zoologist had already suggested that the dachshund is a representative of hound dogs, with only a few distinctive features - short limb curves, elongated trunk and pointed muzzle. Art canvases of the 15th century clearly demonstrate the grace and attractiveness of this funny breed.
But at what point of the world would this breed not appear,And whoever her ancestors are, remains the main question that interests many tax experts: how the dog turned out, with such an unusual appearance. It is unequivocal that the dachshund is the result of mutation of dogs with long limbs, this is their exaggerated form. No matter how terrible it may sound, this breed appeared due to the genetic disease of chondrodystrophy or achondroplasia. Chondrodystrophy is a rare form of limb bone disease, when the body, head and neck continue to grow at a normal pace, and the limbs remain small and twisted.
In the animal world, such a disease is far from beingA rarity, and in the world of human chondrodystrophics it is customary to call dwarfs. They also have a normal trunk and severely shortened legs and arms. But a person follows the principles of natural selection, so this genetic disease can not spread to our entire species. But the dachshund had no such choice. One tax collector somehow called the rate "a noble and noble dwarf". How accurately and correctly noticed.
The first and most notable mention of the dachshund in Russia isAttributed to the mid-18th century, when the throne reigned Anna Ioannovna. Then this breed was highly valued. For 35 pairs of dogs of this breed asked 1100 rubles - a lot of money for those times. But, despite this, the dachshund was not able to win much popularity among hunters and dog experts, since the first places in the list of favorites were always occupied by greyhound and long-legged hounds. But in 1900 appeared the first community of fans and admirers of this breed. Participants held numerous tribal exhibitions and kept records, which have survived to this day.
More often the fee was established as a pet. One of the brightest representatives of the era of the 19th century, the great writer Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, contained in his house 2 long-haired taxes: a dog and a bitch - Brom Isaiah and Hina Markovna. In one of his letters Chekhov described his dogs as animals with an ugly appearance, awfully crooked paws, a long body and with an extraordinary and startling level of intelligence. Inventiveness, extraordinary intelligence and amazing intelligence celebrated many famous classics of the last century.
The modern dachshund takes pride of place among those dogs that are preferred for sports competitions and, of course, for hunting.
Standards and appearance: the main characteristics
The image of the modern dachshund began to form andImprove in the middle of the last century. And in 1879 the standard of the breed was considered and adopted, which exists until now and has undergone insignificant changes only twice.
The standard is a description of the externalDetails, character traits, productivity, and also features of behavior and heredity of a dog. It is worth noting that the standard - this is not a description of the representative of the middle type of breed, but an ideal, which you must constantly strive for. But this does not mean that if you find any discrepancies with the standards, then this will be a defect and a sign of "non-generosity". It only means that your dog is individual and such as she is no more.
Dachshund is the most original dog in allWorld. She has a squat elongated trunk, stretched, but compact. Its skeleton is very powerful, and the musculature is embossed and dry. The posture is proud and stately.
Growth. The height of the normal rate varies from 27 to 20 cm. Depending on whether the knot is a dog or a dog. The height of the withers should not exceed the height in the rump. The length of the trunk is from 150 to 177 cm.
Color. Taxes are:
- Single-color. Red, reddish-yellow, dark-red, yellow. The most priority color is dark-red. Claws and nostrils should be black.
- Two-color. Black with brown (coffee), rusty-brown with gray, gray with yellow spots on the eyes, on the neck, on both sides of the muzzle, on the paws and on the chest. Black dogs have black claws and a nose, coffee ones have brown ones.
- Spotted, tiger and marble. The main tone of marble dachshund is reddish. A gray, yellowish, brown, black spotting is allowed. Spots should not be large and predominate over the main color. The nose and claws are black.
Wool. The "original form" of this dog is smooth-haired. But the evolutionary transformation and the development of selection led to the appearance of longhaired dachshunds. Today there are 3 types of wool: smooth, long and stiff. The most popular is the smooth-haired dachshund. Their cover should be very short (no more than 1-2 cm), dense, slightly harsh, shiny, and snug against the body of the dog.
The long coat should be long,Shiny, thick, very soft, straight, with undercoat and adjacent to the body. A slightly longer coat should be on the neck, lower part of the trunk, on the ears and back of the legs.
Wirehair dachshunds must have a thick, hard, tightly fitting body to the cover. The length is uniform, about 3 cm. The undercoat is very thick, and the coat feels like a bristle to the touch.
The skin should be smooth, without wrinkles and subcutaneous tissue, very elastic. The musculature is developed and embossed. The standard does not allow loose skin and soft muscles.
The head is more elongated, closer to the nosePointed. Clear lines and outlines, without unevenness and convexity, are dry. The forehead of the dachshund is slightly convex or flat at all, the transition to the muzzle is gradual and smooth, without pronounced fractures. The brow arches of the dog stand out, which give her eyes a meaningful and intelligent look. The nose of the nose is very large, which is typical for a hunting dog. The nostrils are inflated, as if they are in constant readiness to sniff the traces of a predator in the forest. Lips should close the jaws well.
The dachshund ears are slightly rounded at the ends, loweredDown, their length should coincide with the level of the nose. They are mobile and planted on the head high enough and far. They are soft, but not thick, their front side snug against the cheekbones of the dog. Standards exclude pointed, too small or too large, protruding ears.
Eyes average in size, oval and setA little askew. The expression of the eyes at the dachshund is completely unkind and "not very cliché". Their eyes always shine and are filled with friendliness. Despite the color of the dog, the eyes should be dark brown in color. Only marble fees can "afford" a blue or mottled eye color. In the case of a thoroughbred thoroughbred dog, yellow or green shades are not allowed.
Teeth smooth, close fitting, snow-white. The jaw bite is scissor-like.
Chest dachshund is very powerful and strongly protrudes, while creating shallow depressions on both sides. The line of the transition of the chest to the stomach should be smooth and even.
The back is very long and straight, without flexes it gradually passes into the lower back. It differs muscularity and dryness. Strong sag or hump is not allowed.
The front legs of the dachshund are quite thick and powerful,But, at the same time, very short and slightly curved. The blades are very long and close to the chest. The hind legs are also muscular and bony, set apart widely and parallel to each other. Despite the fact that all 4 paws dachshunds are short and twisted, they are very powerful and strong. Pads on the paws are dense, evenly assembled, claws hard and thick.
The tail of the dachshund should be a harmonious continuation of its torso. The length almost reaches the end of the paw. Its base is thick, and towards the end it is sharpened.
The dachshund is strong and enduring, although her appearance can not always "loudly say" about it.
In addition to the fact that all the rates are divided into smooth-haired, long-haired and wire-haired, there are several more varieties, determined by the size of the dog.
Standard fees and "rabbits", as well as "dwarfs." Not all these species were created by nature. Their evolution depended on the specialization of hunting, on the species of a certain animal, on which hunting was conducted and on the conditions in which hunting was conducted.
Breeders and dog breeders from Germany onFor a long time, repeated attempts to create the most miniature variety of a dachshund, which could easily be hunted in a rabbit hole. Hunting rabbits is very difficult and takes a lot of time and effort. It was just necessary to bring out a breed with short legs that would feel free in the rabbit hole and could drive the rabbit out, where people were waiting for him.
The rabbit dachshund was the perfect solutionProblem hunting rabbits. But it should be noted that its withdrawal took many years. It was difficult to cross the necessary breeds to create a small dog that does not lose the feeling of anger, aggression, excitement and hunting passion in relation to its prey.
Today, dwarf and rabbit dachshunds are more divorced and kept as a decorative pet.
Also there is an Anglo-American form of dachshund. But this species does not meet the world standards. Breeders from the United Kingdom withdrew this breed, taking into account only their own preferences and standards.
There are fees of 3 different sizes:
- Standard - the height at the withers is 20-27 cm, the chest girth is not less than 35 cm, the weight is not more than 9 kg
- Dwarf - 14-21 cm, chest circumference at the age not earlier than 15 months 30-35 cm
- Rabbit - 10-15 cm, chest girth at the age not earlier than 15 months up to 30 cm
The average life expectancy of dachshunds is 12-15 years.
Price of the puppy of a dachshund
The cost of dogs of this breed varies, as a rule, From 10 000 to 30 000 rubles. Such a spread of prices is due to the presence of a pedigree, and different titles from parents.
Care and maintenance features
The very appearance of the dachshund, its miniature characterThat problems with the maintenance and leaving will not be. It can be kept in an apartment or in a country house. But, of course, any animal will be best at will. The dachshund is not an exception, it is very mobile and inquisitive, so if you decide to bring the fee to the apartment, then you need to take care of the daily walk. They are so compact that they can easily become "mobile" if you are going on a trip or to a dacha.
Taxes are not required for special care, but there is something forThan it is necessary to follow very closely, carefully and regularly - this is their health. After all, they are sick from birth and until the end of their days. Their disease has genetic inheritance, and from this you can not escape. Proper care for their health is the timely development and strengthening of the muscles of the back and limbs. For this it is necessary to make walks with the crossing of the terrain, and also to go in for swimming.
Active walks in the fresh air will bePromote good blood circulation and strengthen all muscle groups, it also helps to maintain appetite and provide a sound healthy sleep. It should be remembered that the pet of this breed should be taught from the youngest age to walk with a collar and on a leash. In this case, the leash must be stretched, this is necessary for good posture. It will also help to develop discipline and diligence. In no case should not risk the health of the dachshund and walk it in rainy weather or in slush.
To health, taxes must be treated with care andAvoid excessive loads and injuries. A problem with the spine can cause banal obesity and jumping in an upright position. Inveterate arborists know that the most common disease with the most unfortunate consequences is the prolapse or displacement of the intervertebral disc (discopathy). To prolong a healthy and happy life, you can only if you properly take care of the dachshund and pay attention to her mood and behavior.
The issue of molting can also be attributed to featuresCare and maintenance fees. In spite of what kind of breed you choose (long-haired or smooth-haired), the moulting period for all species occurs at the same time and proceeds almost identically. Active moult, which can bring unpleasant troubles, begins in the spring. In autumn, the dachshund "sheds" the old fur a little calmer. During this period it is best to use a rough brush or special mittens, and also several times a day with wet hands to carry around the body of the dachshunds in order to get rid of the fallen hair.
Bathing dachshund is not recommended too often. More precisely, not more than 2 times a year. Dachshund is considered one of the cleanest dogs, she carefully monitors her hygiene. Frequent water procedures can harm her health. But it is far from a rarity, when small puppies or even an adult dachshund can specially fall into the mud or even in its own excrement (this behavior is caused by natural instincts that call to hide its own smell during hunting), then one should not wait, and in such cases the dog It is necessary to bathe and clean.
What and how to feed properly?
Today the modern market offers ownersDogs a wide range of dry feeds, fertilizing, etc. But experienced dog experts and cynologists recommend combining natural food with dry food. You can feed both individually and mixing traditional food with purchased feed in one bowl. As a natural food can be lean meat, cottage cheese, kefir, vegetable proteins. You can not feed the dachshund from "your table", too salty, sweet, fried and smoked products.
The most important rule of feeding is notoverfeed. Obesity and overweight can be a serious health problem. From the first months of life and up to the 4th it is desirable to feed not more often than 4 times a day. Starting from the fourth month to six months - no more than 3 times. And, starting from six months to the end of life - not more than 2 times a day.
How to choose and where to buy a good puppy dachshund?
If you decide on what in your home shouldTo appear a puppy of the dachshund, then first you need to prepare for his "arrival". Think about where he will eat and sleep, and where he can play. Get a lot of rubber and wooden toys, so that instead of them, a small cape carp will not gnaw your shoes and furniture. After this, decide who you want, male or female. Here you need to focus solely on your own preferences. Only it is worth considering that the males are much more aggressive and angrier than the bitches, but they are more patient and enduring. Bitches are very affectionate, cautious and intelligent. But the most important thing is that the bitch will "demand" the continuation of the offspring every year.
If you want a thoroughbred and tribal dachshund, thenIt is best to turn to the proven owners who will be able to confirm the pedigree of the puppy's parents. Give preference to the baby, who appeared in a small litter. This means that the mother's milk was enough for him, and, therefore, he is quite healthy. It is important that the future owner and puppy have mutual sympathy. Do not choose an aggressive or too listless pet. He should be moderately active and playful, a little stand out from the total number of puppies. Observe his behavior, his appetite and the way he plays.
Most often the puppy is taken at an age not youngerOne month. By this time, he must be fairly well-fed, but agile. His temperament must be cheerful, and the look must be read curiosity. The eyes are shiny, and the puppies of the dachshund should be clean, without excretions. The limbs are widely set, the paws are short, but already strong. The muzzle of a small dachshund should be round, despite the fact that it has a pointed dagger in an adult dachshund. The tail is thick and round, without breaks or seals. The coat is shiny, of the same length. Be sure to check the coat for lack of parasites or dandruff.
Ask the owner for all documents and references,Which will confirm the pedigree and the availability of the necessary vaccinations. But still after the purchase immediately take the puppy to the vet for a scheduled examination. Thus, you will be able to detect imperceptible eye defects and health problems in time.
Since puppies are very mobile, you need to be very careful with them. Do not lift them under the feet.
Train or educate?
Training in the case of taxes is a veryHard and long work. It would seem that the dachshund is a very smart animal, endowed with an unsurpassed intelligence from the very beginning, so training should be elementary simple. But this is not so. Together with the mind, the dachshund is endowed with stubbornness and own opinion. Sometimes it seems that she perfectly understands what the owner wants from her, but her question reads the question: "Do I need this?". But there are some tips that can help a beginner in this difficult business.
To begin with understand, what to train and forceA fee to do something without her consent and desire is an impossible task. But do not mumble either. All teams must be clear, loud and firm. You should try to work out reflexes in your dog. That is, giving the command to "lie down", you need to put a little pressure on its groats, showing what you want and that do not give up on your own.
You do not need to persuade the dachshund to do something,Translating everything into a joke and a game. The dog must understand that you are a leader and now is not the time to play. Be sure to praise her with kind words and goodies, but only after she performed the team.
Take care of patience, excessive demandsAnd nervousness you will achieve the opposite results: the dog will become uncontrollable and inattentive. Parenting should be consistent, with the maximum impact of your attention. The intellectual abilities of this dog allow it to easily memorize numerous teams. But for each team should be given enough time to the dachshund carefully memorized and learned.If you decide on such an acquisition, like a dachshund, then be prepared for the fact that this dog will come to your house for a long time.